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Updated by SAE Australia on Jan 31, 2018
Headline for Pedagogy (TPACK)
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Pedagogy (TPACK)

Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) – “Teachers’ deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning. They encompass, among other things, overall educational purposes, values, and aims. This generic form of knowledge applies to understanding how students learn, general classroom management skills, lesson planning, and student assessment.” (Koehler & Mishra, 2009).

Checking Students' Learning

Classroom Assessment Techniques (commonly called CATs) are brief classroom activities designed to help shape and focus subsequent teaching based on students’ current understanding and ongoing learning needs. They are quick and easy ways to check how well students are learning course content that’s been recently covered. Moreover, they allow students to monitor—and quite possibly strengthen—their own learning.

Checks for Understanding

There are numerous classroom assessment methods, but common to all is that they ask students to demonstrate or apply their knowledge. Use a variety of assessment methods to enable students to best demonstrate their understanding. Selecting the assessments you employ in your class is an important consideration; research indicates that the types of assessment instructors use impact what, how, and how much students study, as well as how they participate in course activities. The following provides information about a few common assessment methods for you to consider using in your class to assess student learning and the effectiveness of your lectures.

Strategies for Effective Lesson Planning

A lesson plan is the instructor’s road map of what students need to learn and how it will be done effectively during the class time. Before you plan your lesson, you will first need to identify the learning objectives for the class meeting.  Then, you can design appropriate learning activities and develop strategies to obtain feedback on student learning. A successful lesson plan addresses and integrates these three key components:

Top 10 Evidence Based Teaching Strategies

Evidence based teaching strategies have a far larger effect on student results than others do. Discover the top ten, evidence based teaching strategies in this article.

Instructional Approaches

"Effective teaching is not a set of generic practices, but instead is a set of context-driven decisions about teaching. Effective teachers do not use the same set of practices for every lesson . . . Instead, what effective teachers do is constantly reflect about their work, observe whether students are learning or not, and, then adjust their practice accordingly (Glickman, 1991, p. 6).

A Starter Kit for Differentiated Instruction

I have combed through tons of online resources on how to differentiate instruction, and have put together this collection of the clearest, most high-quality books, articles, videos and documents for learning how to differentiate in your classroom. Continue Reading →

Designing Learning Activities

Once you know what you would like the students to learn, you can select activities that will help them acquire the desired knowledge and skills. Activities can include lecturing, discussions, question and answer sessions, brainstorming, quizzes, etc. Activities can take place face-to-face or online; ideally the online activities should be well integrated into the face-to-face aspects of the course and vice-versa.

For more information on activities and strategies for use in the classroom, see these Centre for Teaching Excellence (CTE) teaching tips.

Instructional Pacing: How Do Your Lessons Flow?

Pacing a lesson so its nearly seamless takes expertise and practice -- and can be one of the greatest challenges for new teachers. For those more seasoned out there, here's a scenario many of us can relate to from the early days: way too much time for one learning activity, while not enough for another and clunky transitions in between. Also on the teacher plate when it comes to instructional decisions that influence pacing? How best to chunk and scaffold content so it's grade-level appropriate and then deciding on the best instructional mode. So let's take a look at the essentials when it comes to pacing the lesson and the learning.

Classroom Management Strategies

No two tutorials will operate in the same way and there may be things that go wrong. One of these common challenges can be the behaviour of students – some may be dominating, some may be appear disinterested and do not contribute. Establish ground rules for expected behaviour, participation and how the tutorials will be run. Some students may bring their troubles to you. Listen to their problems and deal with academic matters which fall within your expertise, but encourage students to seek further appropriate professional counselling if this is needed. The following sections discuss strategies for dealing with some common scenarios: passive students, dependent students, confrontational students, unprepared students, dominating students, when the tutor doesn’t know the answer and late arrivals and early leavers.

Teaching Tips (2006)

Teaching Tips by McKeachie, S (2006) is a great resource full of teaching tips from strategies, to research and theory for college and university teachers. Page 40, offers some insight into starting discussions with questions and also provides a useful introduction to different types of questions. This resource is available from SAE libraries in both Perth and Brisbane.

The Big List of Class Discussion Strategies

15 formats for structuring a class discussion to make it more engaging, more organized, more equitable, and more academically challenging.

ED102 Student Retention Methods

Centre for Excellence in Education: Enhancing Student Retention.
This 4 hour online course focuses on how to understand your students and use proven motivation and retention techniques to keep them enrolled and engaged in the learning process. It also explains how increasing students' sense of security can enhance their motivation during instruction, questioning, activities, and evaluations. Reviews the characteristics of adult learners. It discusses the concept of interacting with students as though they are customers and how the students-as-customers concept relates to the instructor and the classroom. It also looks at the effect of stress on attrition, the use of tools to identify and help students at risk, practical ideas on designing an orientation program, first-week-of-class and other retention activities, efficient admissions procedures, great orientation programs, effective mentoring, student friendly school and classroom involvement, fabulous graduations, and successful placement, tips and suggestions, current research results on human behaviour and organisational culture to enhance student enrolment and retention, locate the specific areas of your operations where you can implement an improved customer service plan.
To access this resource you will need to have registered for a Center for Excellence in Education account. Please see you CAC for details. SAE have agreed to pay for three courses from this resource.

Equality and Diversity

Equality and Diversity (Sussex University) - This link to the Equality and Diversity website at Sussex University offers a wide range of resources include specific advice on working with students with a range of disabilities e.g. It describes the disability and then goes on to suggest strategies to support learners with say Aspergers or Autism.

Teaching, Learning and Study Skills : A Guide for Tutors

This text represents a practicable resource for tutors and lecturers. Of note, are chapters four and five which focus upon gauging and locating students preparedness and approach to learning. Chapter five through seven are centred around engaging and enabling students to transition to higher education environment through individuating and owning their learning.

Developing Effective Assessment in Higher Education : A Practical Guide

Gives practical guidance on managing and improving assessment within higher education. This work tackles various stages in the assessment cycle including assessment design, preparing students for assessment, marking, providing feedback and quality assurance. It also includes an introduction to the research literature on assessment.' [Chapter 3, 4 & 6 provide an enhanced view of assessment as an opportunity to cosign learning outcomes through self-directed learning

Pedagogical Content Knowledge

Pedagogical Content Knowledge (Intercultural Development Research Association) - Content knowledge alone is not enough to be effective in a learning context. What teachers really need to focus on are the links between Pedagogy and Content Knowledge (PCK). This website link lists some ‘Highlights of Key Findings and Principles of Pedagogical Content Knowledge’.

5 Best Practices for the Flipped Classroom

Blogger Andrew Miller offers some strategies for making the model work, including appropriate reflection, technology considerations, creating a need to know and more. Five Best Practices for the Flipped Classroom - "Helping Students Succeed (Video 5m 56s)

Flipped Learning Community

Flipped Learning Network (Website) - This free professional learning community is for sharing best practices in flipped learning. It is a source of information for emerging and established educators at all grade levels and subjects who are employing the flip in a single lesson, an individual class, an entire department, or the whole school. It gives you access to an online forum, online groups and newsletters. It also includes a selection of very useful videos uploaded by practitioners.

Flipping the Classroom |

Flipping the Classroom - Introduction to flipping the classroom (Video 3m 07s) Aaron Quigley introduces the concept of the Flipped classroom. In this video he presents a generic overview, which links well to a series of video resources on this innovative technique.

Encouraging and Evaluating Class Participation

Many faculty interpret student responses to faculty questions as evidence of an actively engaged classroom. Because of this conviction, class participation, whether graded or ungraded, appears in many course syllabi in colleges and universities and is often promoted as the responsibility of students to contribute to the learning environment. Class participation provides faculty with some confidence that learning is taking place during a course and that students are reading assignments. While faculty may debate that attendance should not be used as a stand-in for class participation, this may not be a universally held belief or practice. Some faculty create rubrics which structure student participation and often delineate the tasks students should perform. Rubrics often list points, percents, and scales indicating levels of performance. This scoping review of the literature identifies themes encouraging and grading class participation and provides examples to increase class participation.

Using Questioning to Develop Understanding

Understanding Questioning to Develop Understanding (Video 2m 5s) - This Teaching Channel short video shows a teacher demonstrating and discussing effective questioning techniques.

Questioning Techniques: Research-Based Strategies for Teachers

Questioning Techniques: Research-Based Strategies for Teachers - Questioning techniques are a heavily used, and thus widely researched, teaching strategy. Research indicates that asking questions is second only to lecturing. Teachers typically spend anywhere from 35 to 50 percent of their instructional time asking questions. But are these questions effective in raising student achievement? How can teachers ask better questions of their students? How can current educational research inform practice? This online article looks at these questions.

New Classroom Questioning Techniques

New Classroom Questioning Techniques for the Best Year Ever - Teachers ask 400 questions a day - 70,000 a year, according to The Guardian. While preparing so many questions is a lot of work, you can save time by using some of the questioning techniques (QTs) described in this link.

Dipsticks: Efficient Ways to Check for Understanding

Through alternative formative assessment, teachers can check for student understanding without falling back on the tedious or intimidating pop quiz.

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    Quality teaching is widely acknowledge as being a key determinant of variation in student achievement (Wenglinsky, 2000). Concomitantly, student-learning can be positively affected through better teaching. As creative professionals and scholars, we understand the importance of maintaining industry standards and continuing engagement with new technologies, practice, policy developments, research and innovations in our respective fields. If we are committed to a vision of providing our students with the knowledge and skills to become self-directed learners, critical thinkers and creative professionals, then as educators it is critical that we are also committed to developing our professional practice and mastering the competencies that will ensure positive learning outcomes for our students. The Learning and Teaching Matrix has been created to promote and support the delivery of quality learning and teaching at SAE.

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