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Complete Automotive Reconditioning Solutions

Learn how to make $5000/month on fiverr. Also know how mitochondria produce energy, how cellular respiration happens, how crossing over happens in meiosis cell division, how mitosis and meiosis cell division happens etc. Also know the structure of DNA double helix.


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Mitosis (M) a type of cell division in which a daughter cell receives the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.

Cell Cycle

All the estimated 100 trillion cells that make up your body arose from a single fertilized
egg. As this fertilized egg cell underwent a series of divisions that increased the number of cells, thus increasing the size and complexity of your body until eventually you reached your current size. Cell division also maintains a fully grown individual. All multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms grow in size and maintain the cells of their body (the somatic cells) by a sequence of events called the
cell cycle.

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What is DNA?

DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is a polymer
of nucleotides. Each monomer is called a nucleotide. Each nucleotide is itself a complex molecule made up of three components: a sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphoric acid. DNA consists of two complementary strands in a helix form.

In the DNA molecule, the bases of one DNA strand are paired with bases in the other
strand. A purine is always paired with a pyrimidine. Adenine (a purine) is always paired with thymine (a pyrimidine), and guanine (a purine) is always paired with cytosine (a pyrimidine). This type of pairing is termed complementary base pairing.

Pairing of the nitrogenous bases adenine (A) with thymine (T) and cytosine (C) with guanine (G) on the two complementary
strands occurs by hydrogen bonding. A pairs with T by two hydrogen bonds, and
C pairs with G by three hydrogen bonds.
Hydrogen bonds, between the complementary bases (A-T and G-C) on opposite strands, hold the double helix together. Although a single hydrogen bond is very weak, large numbers of hydrogen bonds are collectively strong, so the DNA molecule is very stable.

The sequence of bases on any one strand of DNA can vary greatly between species, but
its opposite strand will always have the complementary sequence of bases. For example, the sequences of the strands below are complementary:



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Meiosis is the type of cell division involved in the formation of sex cells, or gametes.In meiosis, the chromosome number of the daughter cells is half that of the parent cell.

In mitosis, the chromosome number of the daughter cells is the same as in the parent here for more


Mitochondria | How mitochondria produce energy? Cellular respiration

Mitochondria | How mitochondria produce energy? Cellular respiration

How mitochondria produce energy?

Mitochondria possess a double membrane composed of a smooth outer membrane
and a highly folded inner membrane. The outer membrane plays a role similar to that of the cell membrane, but the inner membrane performs many functions associated with cellular respiration.

The inner membrane also creates two compartments within the mitochondrion. The mitochondrial matrix is a protein-
rich liquid that fills the innermost space of a mitochondrion, and a fluid-filled
intermembrane space lies between the inner and outer membrane. Each of these compartments play a critical role in cell respiration.

Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration refers collectively to the intracellular reactions in which energy-rich molecules are broken down to form ATP, using O2 and producing CO2 in the process.

Glucose + Oxygen
C6H1206( s ) O2(g)

-> Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy
CO2 (g) H2O(l) Energy

The importance of cellular respiration :

• Cells cannot use high-energy molecules, such as glucose, directly. Cellular
respiration converts glucose into energy-containing molecules the cells can use
directly, such as ATP.

• Cells use ATP for their immediate energy needs.

• Cellular respiration takes place in the presence of oxygen and produces
36 ATP molecules per glucose molecule.

How To Make Money On Fiverr – The complete guide to make $5000/month

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What is cloning?

Cloning is the process of forming identical offspring from a single cell or tissue in the
parent organ.

Human clone

A clone originates from a single parent cell, and both the clone and parent have identical (or nearly identical) nuclear DNA. Although some clones show accidental changes in genetic information, cloning does not result in the variation of traits that
would occur with the combination of male and female sex cells.

Cloning is therefore considered a form of asexual reproduction. In fact, clones occur naturally.

Cloning of Hydra

Some species, such as hydra reproduce by undergoing mitosis to produce buds with identical DNA to the larger parent cell...... click here for more