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Updated by Kajal Panda on Jan 14, 2021
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School college chemistry

Online college chemistry courses provide the basic study of physical, organic, inorganic analytical chemistry for school and college students.



Le-Chatelier principle

Le-Chatelier principle

Le-Chatelier principle quantitatively predicts the effect on the system at equilibrium when some of the variables such as temperature, pressure, and concentration are changed


Electromagnetic spectrum radiation

Electromagnetic spectrum radiation

The electromagnetic spectrum radiation chart can be described as a wave occurring simultaneously in the electrical field and magnetic field. Each type of radiation like radio waves, ultraviolet, infrared, visible, etc has both wave and particle properties.

Elementary Particles | Definition, Examples & Types

Discovery list of elementary particles, electron, proton, neutron, charge, and mass of the elementary particles, particles experiment, atomic nucleus

Rutherford Model | Nuclear Chemistry

Rutherford model, the discovery of the nucleus, gold foil experiment by Ernest Rutherford, the nucleus and electrons of an atom, Rutherford model limitation

Bohr Model | Energy of Hydrogen Atom

Bohr's model hydrogen atom for chemistry courses, Bohr's postulates, velocity and radius of hydrogen from Bohr's model, the energy of an electron in the atom

Hydrogen Spectrum | Atomic Emission, Absorption

The atomic emission and absorption spectrum of hydrogen, energy, and frequency of light spectra, IR, UV, and visible spectral lines or region

de Broglie Relation | Wavelenths & Frequency

de Broglie wavelength relation for chemistry courses, de Broglie wave-particle duality, de Broglie electron diffraction, the kinetic energy of an electron

Quantum Number | Orbital Diagram

Quantum number orbitals diagram in chemistry, principal, azimuthal, magnetic, spin quantum energy level, the shape of S, P, d atomic orbitals of an atom


Common types of chemical bonding

Common types of chemical bonding

Definition of chemical bond as the force holding together two atoms or groups of atoms forming an aggregate of ions or molecular species by lowering of energy. Ionic, covalent, and metallic are types of common bonds.

Chemical Equilibrium | Reaction in Chemistry

Definition of the dynamic equilibrium point, reversible, irreversible, endothermic vs exothermic reactions, energy change, and equilibrium constant.

Why do chemical reactions occur?

This leading question can not be answered in a simple sentence. Because details study reveals that the two primary factors responsible for the feasibility of a chemical reaction.
1. The potential energy of the reacting system must be lowered by the reaction.
2. Reactants posses potentially to react because they must find a suitable path to react at a participle rate under specific conditions.

The fast concern with thermodynamics because it studies under chemical equilibrium but the second one constitutes the study of chemical kinetics.

Oxidation Number | Periodic Table Elements

The oxidation number of elements, oxidation state of hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine, sulphur, chromium, manganese, iron complexes, oxidized HCl


pH scale of acid and base

pH scale of acid and base

Define pH scale or chart for acids and bases, pH values for acidic, alkalines, and neutral solution

f block Elements | Lanthanides & Actinides

Names symbol atomic number oxidation state of f block chemical elements, lanthanides actinides in periodic table, electron configuration of f blocks element


Classification of crystalline solid

Classification of crystalline solid

On the basis of the nature of force operating between constituent particles or atoms, ions, molecules of matter, classification of crystalline solid


SI units and dimension

SI units and dimension

The IUPAC recommended seven physical quantities that have thair own SI units and dimension. Other physical quantities like force, energy, work, specific heat, etc can be derived from the basic SI unit. But SI unit of luminous intensity or candela not needed in chemistry. It used in optical photochemistry but it included only for the shake of completeness.


Radioactive isotopes

Radioactive isotopes

Uranium-238 decay ultimately to stable radioactive isotopes of lead. The entire route involves eight alpha and six beta radiation.
All the above decay products are given by (4n +2) where n = mass number of radioisotopes.


Chemical kinetics

Chemical kinetics

Chemical kinetics reaction

Chemical kinetics deals with chemical engineering for calculating the rate of a chemical reaction. In the experimental study, chemical kinetic provides the information for the formulation of mechanism or molecular pathways of a reaction.

But very fast or very slow reactions can not discuss under chemical kinetics only a moderate rate of reaction discus.

Van't Hoff Equation | Equilibrium

Van't Hoff equation-chemical equilibrium in chemistry, endothermic, exothermic reaction by Van't Hoff, heat emission, absorption in a chemical equation

Heat Capacity of Gases | Definition, Calculation, Facts

Specific heat capacity definition, unit, thermodynamic derivation of Cp and Cv for air or gases, heat capacity from mechanical work and energy

Critical Constants | Temperature, pressure, volume

Critical constants of real gases, cool or liquefaction properties of natural, ideal, real gas, critical temp, pressure, volume formula for Van der Waals gas

Shielding Electron | Slater's Rule

Slater's rule, shield electron cloud of an atom, ion, shielding effect and effective nuclear charge of electron in different energy level

Oxidation Reduction | Definition, Reaction, Examples

Classical and electronic concept, oxidation-reduction process of chemical reactions, oxidizing and reducing agents, loss, and gain electrons

Kinetic Theory Gases | Physical Chemistry

Kinetic molecular theory of gases formula, postulates, equation, RMS velocity of gases, density, the average, and total kinetic energy of gases


Balancing Chemical Equations

Balancing Chemical Equations

Balancing chemical equations

We are balancing redox chemical equations mainly by ion-electron and oxidation number process. Oxidation reaction always go hand in hand during redox chemical equations.

Rutherford Model | Nuclear Chemistry

Rutherford gold foil experiment model, result and conclusion of Ernest Rutherford atomic discovery, nucleus, extranuclear electrons of an atom