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Updated by Kajal Panda on Sep 24, 2023
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School college chemistry

Online college chemistry courses provide the basic study of physical, organic, inorganic analytical chemistry for school and college students.



Le-Chatelier principle

Le-Chatelier principle

Le-Chatelier principle quantitatively predicts the effect on the system at equilibrium when some of the variables such as temperature, pressure, and concentration are changed


Electromagnetic spectrum radiation

Electromagnetic spectrum radiation

The electromagnetic spectrum radiation chart can be described as a wave occurring simultaneously in the electrical field and magnetic field. Each type of radiation like radio waves, ultraviolet, infrared, visible, etc has both wave and particle properties.

Elementary Particles - Subatomic Particles - List, Mass, Charge

Elementary particles or subatomic particles list, types, discovery and experiment, charge, mass and properties of particle like electron, proton and neutron

Rutherford Model - Experiment, Observation, Limitation

Rutherford model or theory, structure of the atomic nucleus, observations, limitations of Gold Foil experiment by Ernest Rutherford in chemistry or physics

Bohr Model Hydrogen Atom - Postulates, Energy Levels

Bohr model of hydrogen atom, postulates, energy levels, calculation of radius, velocity, emission or absorption energy of electron by Bohr's theory

Hydrogen Spectrum - Emission, Absorption - Series, Diagram

Atomic emission and absorption spectrum series, region and diagram for hydrogen atom, energy and frequency of spectra IR, UV, visible spectral lines

de Broglie Relation - Derivation, Hypothesis, Equation, Formula

de Broglie wave particle hypothesis equation to calculate wavelengths, frequency of electron, energy wavelength relation of light photon of matter

Quantum Number Orbital - Definition, Formula, Diagram, Shape

Quantum number orbital definition, formula, find principal, azimuthal, magnetic, spin quantum numbers set, diagram shape of s,p, d orbitals in chemistry


Common types of chemical bonding

Common types of chemical bonding

Definition of chemical bond as the force holding together two atoms or groups of atoms forming an aggregate of ions or molecular species by lowering of energy. Ionic, covalent, and metallic are types of common bonds.

Chemical Equilibrium - Reaction, Definition, Examples, Types

Definition of the dynamic equilibrium point, reversible, irreversible, endothermic vs exothermic reactions, energy change, and equilibrium constant.

Why do chemical reactions occur?

This leading question can not be answered in a simple sentence. Because details study reveals that the two primary factors responsible for the feasibility of a chemical reaction.
1. The potential energy of the reacting system must be lowered by the reaction.
2. Reactants posses potentially to react because they must find a suitable path to react at a participle rate under specific conditions.

The fast concern with thermodynamics because it studies under chemical equilibrium but the second one constitutes the study of chemical kinetics.

Oxidation Number - Periodic table elements - Definition, Rules

Oxidation number or state of periodic table elements definition, rules find oxidation numbers of hydrogen, oxygen, alkali alkaline metals atoms in compounds


pH scale of acid and base

pH scale of acid and base

Define pH scale or chart for acids and bases, pH values for acidic, alkalines, and neutral solution

f block Elements - Lanthanides and Actinides - Periodic Table

f block chemical elements on periodic table names, symbols, lanthanides and actinides atomic number, electronic configuration, oxidation state, position


Classification of crystalline solid

Classification of crystalline solid

On the basis of the nature of force operating between constituent particles or atoms, ions, molecules of matter, classification of crystalline solid


SI units and dimension

SI units and dimension

The IUPAC recommended seven physical quantities that have thair own SI units and dimension. Other physical quantities like force, energy, work, specific heat, etc can be derived from the basic SI unit. But SI unit of luminous intensity or candela not needed in chemistry. It used in optical photochemistry but it included only for the shake of completeness.


Radioactive isotopes

Radioactive isotopes

Uranium-238 decay ultimately to stable radioactive isotopes of lead. The entire route involves eight alpha and six beta radiation.
All the above decay products are given by (4n +2) where n = mass number of radioisotopes.


Chemical kinetics

Chemical kinetics

Chemical kinetics reaction

Chemical kinetics deals with chemical engineering for calculating the rate of a chemical reaction. In the experimental study, chemical kinetic provides the information for the formulation of mechanism or molecular pathways of a reaction.

But very fast or very slow reactions can not discuss under chemical kinetics only a moderate rate of reaction discus.

Van't Hoff Equation - Chemical Equilibrium - Derivation, Formula

Van't Hoff equation temperature effect on chemical equilibrium derivation formula, endothermic, exothermic reaction, heat change in solution by Le-Chatelier

Heat Capacity Gases - Definition, Calculation, Units, Formula

Heat capacity of gases (specific, molar) at constant pressure or volume definition, formula, units, value, calculation of Cp Cv from energy equation of gas

Critical Constants - Temperature, Pressure, Volume of Real Gas

Critical constants of real gases determination formula, liquefaction condition, critical temperature, pressure, volume from Van der Waals gas equation

Shielding Electrons - Slater's Rule - Effective Nuclear Charge

Slater's rule for calculating shielding constant, affective nuclear charge of s p d f electron of atom or ion, inner electrons effect on ionization energy

Oxidation Reduction Reaction - Definition, Concept, Examples

Oxidation reduction reaction and oxidizing reducing agent definition, common examples, classical, oxidation number, electronic concept in chemistry

Kinetic Theory Gases - Postulates, Equation, Derivation

Kinetic theory of gases postulates, kinetic gas equation formula derivation, calculate root mean square speed, average, total kinetic energy of molecules


Balancing Chemical Equations

Balancing Chemical Equations

Balancing chemical equations

We are balancing redox chemical equations mainly by ion-electron and oxidation number process. Oxidation reaction always go hand in hand during redox chemical equations.

Rutherford Model - Experiment, Observation, Limitation

Rutherford gold foil experiment model, result and conclusion of Ernest Rutherford atomic discovery, nucleus, extranuclear electrons of an atom