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Updated by robertsdale on Mar 22, 2018
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The first lesson was really hard on me because I was green out and out. Luckily, I wasn’t the only guy with the problem. A respite was found when one of my classmates offered to be a part time lecturer to our class whenever we weren’t having an official class session. The essence of that was to present OOP and Java in a way we could understand without our lecturer’s knowledge. I am glad to say it worked, even though the dude did seem nervous at first.




Part of my essay about problem of Causes of Urine Test False Positives.
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If you believe that a false positive urine test result has occurred, you may be right. Toxicology urine tests for drugs and those used to detect disease can sometimes render inaccurate results. This can be caused by several different factors, including some that may be in your control.
• What is a False Positive Urine Test?
If you have taken a urine test that has tested positive for a particular substance(s) that you have not come in contact with via ingestion, inhalation or injection, the result is considered a false positive, in reference to toxicology. Whether drug testing is required for an employer, school or any other reason, there are a few common causes of false positive urine results and some may be avoidable. However, these findings are not limited to drugs. Screenings for certain enzymes, bacteria and other substances pertinent for diagnostic purposes may also render a false result.
• Drug Testing and Medications
A positive toxicology result may be caused by certain medications, including both over the counter and prescription drugs. This can include antihistamines and decongestants containing pseudoephedrine, medications for narcolepsy and ADHD, such as dextroamphetamine, naproxen, an anti-inflammatory drug for conditions such as arthritis and Vick’s inhalers. In addition to this, weight loss supplements can alter toxicology screenings. Those that have recently undergone surgery can obtain a false positive reading as the result of medications administered while in the hospital. Even Amoxicillin has the potential to alter urine testing for drugs.
• What About Urine Testing for Diagnostic Purposes?
It is possible to obtain false results with these types of tests as well. Although medications can play a significant role in this, it can depend on the particular type of test. One of the most common causes of a false positive result is failure to properly prepare for the urine test. This can include not fasting prior to the test, utilization of herbal supplements and even strenuous exercise. Once again, these factors are often dependent on what the particular urinalysis is for. Contamination of the specimen is also another consideration when it comes to urine tests. This can occur when the proper procedure for handling and storage is not followed. Not only does this apply to false positive results, but to false negative results as well.
• Other Considerations When Dealing With a False Positive Urine Test
False urinalysis tests are not that common, but can occur. In most cases, follow up testing or confirmatory testing is performed following a positive result. This applies to both toxicology and diagnostic testing. One of the easiest ways to prevent a false result is by alerting your physician to any medications you may be taking, prescription or over the counter, and usage of herbal remedies. Always ensure that you understand orders regarding fasting and medications prior to your test day. If you have any concerns about the test and obtaining an inaccurate result, discuss this with your physician prior to testing.

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    An Introduction to Genomics by College Homework Help Online
    What is genomics and why is studying genomics useful?
    • The Difference between Genetics and Genomics
    Isn't genomics just the same thing as genetics? After all, they both have to do with DNA, right?
    Not exactly. Both of these topics do study DNA and genes, but at entirely different levels. Genetics is the study of genes, genetic information, heredity, and genetic variation. Genomics, on the other hand, is the study of the entire genome of an organism—all of its genes and tissues, at the level of its DNA, RNA, or protein expression.
    • Genomic Research
    Studying the entire genome of an organism—even a bacteria or virus—is an enormous undertaking. Basic genomic research involves determining how many genes an organism has, the functions of those genes, and how expression or suppression of the organism’s genes is influenced by environmental and other factors.
    Genomic research also includes a more general field of study known as intragenomic phenomena—interactions between various alleles and loci within the genome. This includes such genomic phenomena as epistasis, heterosis, and plieotropy.
    Epistasis occurs when the action of one gene affects the expression of other genes. For example, a gene may code for a protein which, when expressed, prevents the expression of one or more other genes. Epistasis can also occur at the phenotypic level: for example, if an individual has the genetic mutation that causes albinism, the phenotypic effects of genes that control their skin, hair, and eye color will be masked by the lack of pigment caused by albinism.
    Heterosis is also known as hybrid vigor, and describes the way in which hybrids of two genetically different parents have increased strength in certain characteristics. This concept is most often applied to the practice of breeding plants and livestock for characteristics such as improved yield or pest resistance.
    Plieotropy occurs when one gene influences several phenotypic traits at once. Typically, this phenomenon occurs because the gene codes for a protein which is used by many different types of cells, or is involved in a specific cell-signaling pathway. Mutations in plieotropic genes often have wide-ranging effects. An example is the genetic disorder called phenylketonuria, which can reduce skin and hair pigmentation and cause mental retardation due to a mutation in a gene that converts phenylalanine into tyrosine.
    • The Potential of Genomic Research
    In terms of human health and medicine, the potential of genomic research is simply enormous. Genomic research could potentially…
    o Improve the process of drug discovery and design with improved knowledge of drug targets and of how gene expression influences the metabolism of drugs.
    o Allow medical professionals to design drug regimens that are specifically tailored to individuals according to their genetic make-up. This approach could mean treatment that is more effective with fewer risks.
    o Allow for earlier, easier, and more accurate diagnosis of genetic disorders. For example, breast cancer has a very strong genetic link. Around 12% of women carry a gene variant that predisposes them to develop breast cancer, and 50% of all cases of breast cancer develop in this 12% of the population.

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