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Updated by Erika Yigzaw on May 25, 2016
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Erika Yigzaw Erika Yigzaw
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Green Cleaning: Why & How To

1

PubMed

PubMed

Reproduction. 2014 Mar 4;147(4):555-65. doi: 10.1530/REP-13-0522. Print 2014. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Reproduction

Several non-persistent industrial chemicals have shown endocrine disrupting effects in animal studies and are suspected to
be involved in human reproductive disorders. Among the non-persistent chemicals that have been discussed intensively during
the past years are phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), and parabens because of their anti-androgenic and/or estrogenic
effects. Phthalates are plasticizers used in numerous industrial products. Bisphenol A is the main component of polycarbonate
plastics and epoxy resins. Parabens and TCS are antimicrobial preservatives and other phenols such as benzophenone-3 (BP-3)
act as a UV-screener, while chlorophenols and phenyl phenols are used as pesticides and fungicides in agriculture. In spite
of the widespread use of industrial chemicals, knowledge of exposure sources and human biomonitoring studies among different
segments of the population is very limited. In Denmark, we have no survey programs for non-persistent environmental chemicals,
unlike some countries such as the USA (NHANES) and Germany (GerES). However, we have analyzed the excretion of seven parabens,
nine phenols, and the metabolites of eight different phthalates in urine samples collected over the past 6 years from four
Danish cohorts. Here, we present biomonitoring data on more than 3600 Danish children, adolescents, young men, and pregnant
women from the general population. Our study shows that nearly all Danes were exposed to the six most common phthalates, to
BPA, TCS, and BP-3, and to at least two of the parabens. The exposure to other non-persistent chemicals was also widespread.
Our data indicate decreasing excretion of two common phthalates (di-n-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) over time.

Reproduction

Several non-persistent industrial chemicals have shown endocrine disrupting effects in animal studies and are suspected to
be involved in human reproductive disorders. Among the non-persistent chemicals that have been discussed intensively during
the past years are phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), and parabens because of their anti-androgenic and/or estrogenic
effects. Phthalates are plasticizers used in numerous industrial products. Bisphenol A is the main component of polycarbonate
plastics and epoxy resins. Parabens and TCS are antimicrobial preservatives and other phenols such as benzophenone-3 (BP-3)
act as a UV-screener, while chlorophenols and phenyl phenols are used as pesticides and fungicides in agriculture. In spite
of the widespread use of industrial chemicals, knowledge of exposure sources and human biomonitoring studies among different
segments of the population is very limited. In Denmark, we have no survey programs for non-persistent environmental chemicals,
unlike some countries such as the USA (NHANES) and Germany (GerES). However, we have analyzed the excretion of seven parabens,
nine phenols, and the metabolites of eight different phthalates in urine samples collected over the past 6 years from four
Danish cohorts. Here, we present biomonitoring data on more than 3600 Danish children, adolescents, young men, and pregnant
women from the general population. Our study shows that nearly all Danes were exposed to the six most common phthalates, to
BPA, TCS, and BP-3, and to at least two of the parabens. The exposure to other non-persistent chemicals was also widespread.
Our data indicate decreasing excretion of two common phthalates (di-n-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) over time.